کتاب زندان هایی که برای زندگی انتخاب می کنیم

اثر دوریس لسینگ از انتشارات کندوکاو - مترجم: مژده دقیقی-دهه 1980 میلادی

نویسنده برجسته روش های جدیدی را برای مشاهده خود و جامعه ای که در آن زندگی می کنیم، کشف می کند و پاسخ های جدیدی به چنین سوالاتی همچون چگونگی تفکر برای خودمان و درک آنچه ما می دانیم پاسخ می دهد.


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چند ماه پیش، reviewای از این کتاب در goodreads به چشم‌م خورد و آن‌چنان خوب و توصیه‌کننده نوشته شده بود که مجاب شدم در به درِ کتاب‌فروشی‌ها دنبال‌ش بگردم. دیروز اما فرین، لینک فیدیبوی کتاب را برای‌م فرستاد. و این چنین، قرعهٔ اولین کتابی که تمامن الکترونیک خواندم‌ش به نام «زندان‌هایی که برای زندگی انتخاب می‌کنیم» افتاد. کتاب کم حجم و خوش‌خوانی‌ست ولی شاید تمام مطالب مهم و مفید‌ش را می‌شد در چار صفحه خلاصه کرد. اما فهمیدن این مسئله که دوریس لسینگ، نویسندهٔ بریتانیایی و برندهٔ نوبل ادبیات سال ۲۰۰۷ متولدِ کرمانشاه خودمان است؛ آخرین نسخهٔ طنز روزگار بود که با این کتاب به دست‌م رسید.
ناگفته نماند تجربهٔ کار با fidibo دل‌چسب‌تر از آن چیزی‌ست که تصورش را می‌کردم. در نهایت، منِ گذشته‌گرایِ کلاسیک پسند، دو کتاب دیگر هم از فیدیبو خریدم. وه که چقدر هم قیمت‌ش مناسب است. همین کتاب اخیر، که تحفهٔ آن‌چنانی هم نبود، هزار و پانصد تومان خرج برداشت. به شخصه خوش‌حال‌م که نه بیش‌تر از این‌ها بالای‌ش پول دادم. نه جایی از کتابخانه‌ام را اشغال می‌کند.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
زندان هایی که برای زندگی انتخاب می‌کنیم» ، مجموعه مقالاتی انتقادی ـ اجتماعی به قلم دوریس لسینگ (داستان نویس انگلیسی) است. وی در پنج مقاله تحت عنوانهای: «آنگاه که آیندگان به ما می‌اندیشند»، «تو لعنت شده‌ای، ما رستگار»، «عوض کردن کانال برای تماشای دالاس»، «ذهن‌های جمعی» و بالاخره «آزمایشگاههای تغییر اجتماعی»، عادتهای نگرشی و رفتاریِ مسلط بر انسان و جامعة مدرن را مورد تأمل قرار داده است.
مسئلة مشترک و عمدة این مقالات، امر «قضاوت» است.
از خواندن این مقاله ها در همان که بسیار بر دل نگرانیهای همیشگیم افزوده شد اما لذتی بسیار عمیق نیز بردم از نگاه تیزبین و هوشمندانه این جامعه شناس و فیلسوف و رمان نویس که دزادگاهش کرمانشاه ایران است

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Nothing wrong with it but it really was just stating the obvious and doing so in a really sanctimonious way.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Excellent commentary on politics, media and life in general. Great short read on human psychology and the prisons we choose, as well as the keys to escape.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Nobel Laureate Doris Lessing makes an argument for the importance of individualism in modern society. Her argument that the need for everyone to think critically, to question received knowledge and always be suspicious of peer pressure, unquestioning conformity and internal censorship is as true today as it was in 1986. These were lessons she knows should have been learnt by her own time, but were not and have still not become the norm now. This far I am in agreement and it is all too easy to see examples today. And yet the were several issues that I found very problematic.

It is very much a product of its time and a preoccupation with Cold War politics and communist regimes, while dated, is completely understandable. My issues were with other elements. Lessings idea that her society was @[email protected] to a more brutal state relies on a progressive idea of history that jars while at the same time setting up the idea that a better age existed, a fact white she does ruefully admit. As extreme repressive regimes continue to fall away only to repeat in slightly altered form it is difficult to support the idea that such developments are really a reversion to a previous @[email protected] state. The very use of such adjectives now causes a wince.

There are also several references to objective observation during her discussion of the role of literature and the social sciences that assume that this is possible when even the @[email protected] today suggest that all observation not only suffers from bias but even causes it.

Most significantly of all was a balance between the individual and the group that I dont agree with. Groups do have a tendancy towards mass thought, to ready acceptance of the received view and there is always the danger of the @[email protected] in action and in thought but while new ideas might originate with brave individuals (Akhenaten is a questionable example and her interpretation of his place in Egyptian history troubled me) it is only with support of a group, however small this may be at the start, that these can have real impact.

Lessing had, of course, seen plenty of horrific examples of the dark side of dogmatic groups, the false patriotism of the First World War, the colonialism of the British Empire, fascist and communist dictatorships from the 1930s onwards and I would in no denigrate her argument with regards to these examples. But one of the results of her personal experience is an overly monolithic and primarily negative view of all mass movements that carries with it its own problems. Yes, we need to think, we need to question, we need to be aware of ourselves as individuals and we will always need the few who are brave and tireless and unwavering but they in turn will always need the cooperation and support of wider sections of society.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
This short collection of essays presents both some challenging ideas, especially in terms of how we understand our own participation in ideologies of our own choosing. But also this set of essays shows some incredible wisdom in how people tend to understand ideas, mass media, ideology, historical context, and the persistence of continuity. What I mean by the last one is that so much that feels novel and scary and new is definitely scary but not particularly new or novel. And in fact, Lessing seems to greatly understand how people will continue to be influenced by mass media. She also really understands how entrenched we are in our own ideas and how those around us influence us without much in the way of reflection.

There are five essays in this collection and they cover various topics that are connected. Some of them go into some deep dives into Rhodesian/Zimbabwean wars and others go into the Communist party of Britain and other Western democracies and the literary/culture industry. Regardless of these temporal examples, the essays do not particularly feel thirty years old and include one essay about group think and collective mindsets that I plan to use with my students in the fall. This essay talks specifically about how an author might fall in and out of fashion not because of their ideas, but because of taste, and how this illustrates how even the most stubborn of thinkers can be influenced by common and conventional ideas.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
1985 Massey Lecture
We are dominated by our savage past.
No epoch in history looked to the people living then as it appears to us now.
Heraclitus: It is not right to say that I am right on this point (whatever it is) since with the passage of time the @[email protected] view on that point will change.
What will expiate the wrongs of the past or the wrongs of the present?
Part 2 You are damned I am saved
political tyrant -- The Christian church, looked at historically, has ordered and supported many
things that were not good, wars, slavery, capital punishment, etc. Nazism, fascism, communism become prisons ( and sectarian)
Church view was always that heresy, no matter its merit, had to be extirpated.
Belief is very powerful and very ancient and frequently ultimately shown to be wrong.
Part 3 Switching off to see Dallas
Best and most effective way to confront and defeat wrong way of thinking is to laugh.
Easy to see that there are those who cant laugh such as bigots, tyrants, rigid thinkers,
People at the top (those titularly in charge) are usually unaware about what is going on in the thinking of those below.
Part 4 Group Minds
WE live our lives in groups. We usually fall in with thinking of our group. We may not think as the group does on a subject at first but as we are more and more with a group where the majority think that way then we fall in step with the group.
Laws governing groups and their thinking changes over time and with the infrequent better idea that comes along with a new thinker.
The group we are: it is hard to go contrary to the group thought, and it is rarely challenged.
In groups it is rare for a subgroup larger than 10% to go contrary to group thought, though it is
common to see up to that 10% skeptical of the group thought.
Part 5 Laboratories of social change.
People who live under democracy are skeptical of democracy

مشاهده لینک اصلی
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